**भाग-ब:- सिविल अभियांत्रिकी (डिग्री)**

**1.**__ Building T__echnology__ An__d C__onstructio__n __Manage__ment

**Building Materials**: stones, bricks, steel, timber, lime, cement, sand, aggregates for cement concrete, paints, distempers, use of pozzolana in the manufacturing of lime concrete, cement concrete for plain, reinforced and pre-stressed concrete work.

**Road Materials**: Coarse aggregate, screenings and binding materials for WBM, Bricks for soling, Coarse and fine aggregate for bituminous roads, IRC standard size aggregates, Tars, and Asphalt,

Asphaltic concrete, Asphaltic emulsions, Mastic Asphalt, and Minerals fillers

**Construction Management**: Plants and equipment, planning for construction using network analysis CPM and PERT techniques

**2. ****Fluid Mechanics**

**Fluids**: Definition, Ideal fluids, real fluids. Newtonian and Non-Newtonian fluids.

Properties of Fluids: Units of measurement, Mass density, Specific weight, Specific volume, Specific Gravity, Viscosity, Surface tension and Capillarity, Compressibility and Elasticity.

**Hydrostatics**: Pressure at a point in a static fluid: pressure variation in an incompressible static fluid; atmospheric pressure, Gauge pressure, vacuum pressure, absolute pressure, Manometers Bourdon pressure gauge.

**Buoyancy**: Forces acting on an immersed plane surface, Centre of pressure, forces on curved surfaces. Conditions of equilibrium for floating bodies. meta-center and met centric height experimental and analytical determination of met centric height.

**Equilibrium of Fluid particles and flow**: Fluid mass subjected to horizontal and vertical acceleration and uniform rotation.

**Hydro-kinematics**: Types of Flows: Steady and unsteady, uniform and non-uniform, streamlines, pathlines, stream tubes, principles of conservation of mass. equation of continuity, acceleration of fluid particles local and connective, Rotational and irrational motions, free and forced vortex, circulation and voracity velocity potential and stream function, elementary treatment of flow net. Euler's equations of motion and integration of Euler's equations, Bernoulli's equation for incompressible Fluids, assumptions in Bernoulli's equation. Energy correction factor.

**Applications of Bernoulli's equation**: Pitot tube, Venturi meter, Orifice Meter, orifices & mouthpieces, time of emptying of tanks by orifices, sharp-edged rectangular, triangular and trapezoidal notches, Francis formula. The velocity of approach. End contractions Cippoletti Weir, time of emptying reservoirs by weirs.

**Momentum Equation and its Application**: Development of momentum equation by control volume concept, Momentum correction factor, application-Borda’s mouthpieces, sudden enlargement of flow, pressure on flat plates, Nozzles.

**Flow-Through Pipes**: Laminar flow, Reynolds experiment, a transition from laminar to turbulent flow.

Turbulent Flow: Laws of fluid friction, friction factor Moody's loss of head due to friction and other causes. Hydraulic gradient. total energy line Chezy's, Darcy's and Manning's formula. flow-through parallel pipes and pipes in series. flow' through branched pipes. Flow along a bypass. Power transmission through a pipe, condition for maximum power, Elementary water hammer concept.

**3. Surveying Estimation Costing &Field Engineering**

**Introduction**: Importance of surveying to engineers, Plane, and geodetic surveying, methods of the location of points, the principle of surveying from whole to part, conventional signs.

**Measurement of Distances**: Different types of chains, tapes, and their uses. Sources of error and precautions, corrections to tape measurements. Field problems in distance measurement. Advance techniques of distance measurement.

**Measurement of Angles & Direction**: Different types of direction measuring instruments and their uses. Reference meridians, Bearing and azimuths, magnetic declination and its variation. Use and adjustment of surveyors and prismatic compass.

Vernier and micro-optic theodolite, temporary' and permanent adjustment of Vernier theodolite Measurement of horizontal and vertical angle by methods, Application of theodolite in field problems.

**Traversing**: Different methods of traversing; chain traverse, chain & compass traverse, transit-tape traverse. Methods of computations and adjustment of the traverse; transit rule, Bowditchrule, graphical method- axis method. Gales traverse table.

**Leveling**: Definitions of various terms in leveling. Different types of leveling, sources of errors in leveling curvature and refraction connections. Temporary and permanent adjustment of dumpy and tilting levels. Computation and adjustment of level. Profile leveling L-Section and cross-sections.

**Plane Table Surveying**: Elements of plane table survey working operations, Methods of plane table survey; intersection. traversing and resection. two-point and three-point problems.

**Contouring**: Characteristics of contours, contour interval, contour gradient. Methods of locating contours use of contour 'naps.

**Trigonometric Leveling**: Trigonometric leveling, Objects accessible and non-accessible, Determination of levels object when.

**Field Astronomy**: Definitions of terminology used in Astronomy,

Introduction to Remote Sensing and GIS estimation for quantities for various types of construction, Rate Analysis, Preparation of Tender & contract documents. Centre-line diagram, Building layout.

**4. Irrigation & Water Resources**

Definition, necessity, benefits, types, and methods of' irrigation, Hydrology — Measurement of rainfall, runoff coefficient, rain gauge, losses from precipitation evaporation, infiltration, etc. Water requirement of crops, duty, delta and base period, Kharif and Rabi Crops, Command area, Time factor, Crop ratio, Overlap allowance, Irrigation efficiencies. Different types of canals, types of canal irrigation, loss of water in canals. Canal lining-types and advantages. Shallow and deep to wells, the yield from a Well, Weir and barrage, Failure of weirs and permeable foundation, Slit, and Scour, Kennedy’s theory of critical velocity. Lacey's theory of uniform flow. Definition of flood, causes, and effects, methods of flood control, water logging, preventive measures, Land reclamation, Characteristics of affecting fertility of soils, purposes, methods. description of land and reclamation processes. Major irrigation projects in India.

**5. Theory of Structures and Strength of Materials**

Elasticity constants, types of beams determinate and indeterminate, bending moment and shear force diagrams of simply supported, cantilever and over bridge beams. M01nent of area and moment of inertia for rectangular & circular sections, bending moment and shear stress for tee, channel and compound sections, chimneys, dams and retaining walls, Eccentric loads, slope deflection of simply supported and cantilever beams. critical load and columns. Torsion of circular section, Springs, Vibration.

**6. Structural Analysis**

Introduction to Indeterminate structures. Degrees of freedom per node, Static and Kinematic indeterminacy (i.e. for beams, frames & portal with & without sway, etc.), Releases in structures, Maxwell's reciprocal theorem and Betti's theorem, Analysis of Statically Indeterminate Structures using Slope - deflection method. Analysis of structures using the Moment-distribution method applied to continuous beams and portal frames with and without inclined members. Unit load method & their applications deflection of determinate beams and frames, analysis of determinate and redundant frames up to two degrees of redundancy, lack of fit in redundant frames.

**7. Soil Mechanics and Foundations Engineering**

Origin of soil, phase diagram, Definitions-void ratio, porosity. degree of saturation, water content, a specific gravity of soil grains. unit weights. density index and interrelationship of different parameters, Grain size distribution curves and their uses. Index properties of soils, Atterberg's limits, ISI soil classification and plasticity' chart. Permeability of soil, coefficient of permeability, determination of coefficient of permeability Unconfined and confined aquifers, effective stress, quicksand, consolidation of soils, Principles of consolidation, degree of consolidation. pre-consolidation pressure, normally consolidated soil. e-log p curve, computation of ultimate settlement. Shear strength of soils. direct shear test, Vane shear lest. Triaxial test. Soil compaction, Laboratory compaction test, Maximum dry density and optimum moisture content, earth pressure theories, active and passive earth pressures, Bearing capacity of soils, plate load test. standard penetration test.

**8. Design of R.C. Concrete and Masonry Structures**

RCC beams-flexural strength, shear strength, bond strength. design of singly reinforced and double reinforced beams, cantilever beams. T-beams, lintels. One way and two-way slabs, isolated footings. Reinforced brick works, columns, staircases, retaining wall, water tanks (RCC design questions may be based on both Limit State and Working Stress methods)

**Concrete Technology**: Properties. Advantages and uses of concrete, cement aggregates, the importance of water quality, water-cement ratio, workability, mix design, storage, batching, mixing, placement, compaction, finishing and curing of concrete. quality control of concrete, hot weather and cold weather concreting, repair and maintenance of concrete structures.

**9. Design of Steel Structure**

Steel Design: Steel design and construction of steel columns, beams roof trusses plate girders.

**10.Construction Technology**

**Stone and Brick Masonry**: Ashlar, course and random rubble, stone pillar, dry stone and arch masonry, brick bonds and type of walls.

**Lintels**: Plastering, pointing, flooring, Expansion, and construction joints: Centering and shuttering General Selection criteria of site, Planning, and orientation of buildings.

**Roofing**: Stone slab, RCC, G.C. Steel, Asbestos cement and jack arch roofing.

**Flooring**: Cement concrete, flagstone. terrazzo mosaic, Terrazzo tile, Brick on edge, timber Granolithic. linoleum and other floorings.

**Plastering**: Lime, cement sand, composite and rough coat plaster, Plaster of Paris, painting, Damp proof' course, anti-termite treatment.

**Centering and Shuttering**: Centering formwork, shuttering and moulds, timber & steel trestles and falsework, scaffolding, and shoring, underpinning.

**11.Auto -Cad Civil Engineering Drawing**